Dennis Chew, DVM (1.2 CE)
Confirmation of the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease will be discussed and the concept of staging CKD according to the IRIS scheme will be reviewed. A discussion of factors operative in the progressive loss of renal functions will be provided. Evidence based medicine document that “kidney-friendly” diets can extend the life of both dogs and cats. Dietary treatment with changes in protein, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and alkali content (acidifying potential) will be introduced. Adverse effects of too much protein restriction will be noted. The importance of maintaining excellent hydration will be emphasized, as will methods to encourage eating a new diet (methods of diet change and H-2 receptor antagonists). The importance for the use of oral intestinal phosphorus binders will be emphasized in the quest to achieve a targeted level of total body phosphorus control based on serum Pi in the middle part of the reference.
Tina Wismer, DVM, DABVT, DABT (1.2 CE)
This session will discuss the management of the patient that presents with acute onset of severe clinical signs with no known history of exposure to a specific toxicant. The presentation will include patient assessment, treatment, differential diagnoses of common presenting clinical signs (e.g. tremors), and diagnostic procedures which may be helpful. Documentation for legal cases will also be covered.
The second session will review the development of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism and how to correct this condition with the use of phosphorus restriction and calcitriol (activated naturally occurring metabolite 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol). The emerging concept to supplement parent vitamin D (cholecalciferol) will be introduced. The benefits of prescribing converting enzyme inhibitor treatment (enalapril, benazepril) to prolong renal function and/or quality of life will be detailed. The overlapping benefits of dampening the RAAS system with ACE-inhibition and calcitriol will be introduced. Treatment of systemic hypertension secondary to renal failure will be briefly discussed. The potential risks and benefits of EPO (erythropoietin) for the treatment of non-regenerative anemia frequently associated with chronic renal failure will be discussed. The use of darbepoetin as an alternative to the use of erythropoietin will be advocated.
This session will cover anticoagulant, bromethalin, cholecalciferol, strychnine and zinc phosphide rodenticide toxicosis in companion animals, including mechanisms, effects, diagnosis and management.
Idiopathic cystitis is the most common lower urinary tract disease resulting in owners of cats seeking attention for inappropriate urinations and urgent voiding (stranguria, hematuria, dysuria, pollakiria). “Pandora Syndrome” has been recently named to describe the overarching systemic nature of this disorder. Differential diagnosis and their likelihood of occurrence will be shown. A method for diagnosis that is both inclusionary and exclusionary will be developed so the practitioner will feel confident in establishing a diagnosis of idiopathic cystitis. Similarities of idiopathic cystitis to interstitial cystitis will be drawn. The first line of treatment using diet and litterbox management will be discussed.
This session will cover common prescription and over-the-counter human medications. Topics will include acetaminophen, ibuprofen, serotonergic medications, baclofen and ADHD medications.
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This session will feature treatments of cats with FIC that fail initial treatment. A method for further management with increasing water turnover, stress reduction, environmental enrichment and drugs (amitriptyline, analgesia, Feliway) will be developed. The concept that drug therapy is not usually needed when multi-modal environmental modification is successfully implemented will be emphasized. Case examples will be used to illustrate diagnosis and treatment of cats with recurrent lower urinary tract signs.
Chewable medications can be a double edged sword with animals eating the entire prescription at one time. Items covered in this session will include phenylpropanolamine, NSAIDs, avermectins, spinosad and other insecticides.
Methods to accurately identify dogs with bacterial infections will be discussed, as well as the protective mechanisms that normally prevent this from happening in healthy animals. The pivotal role of quantitative urine culture in accurate diagnosis will be reviewed. The selection of antibiotics optimal for the urinary tract will be illustrated and the potential reasons for the apparent ineffectiveness discussed. A new protocol using high-dose hort-duration (HDSSD) enrofloxacin will be introduced as an alternative to standard treatment protocols in dogs with routine UTI. The importance of differentiating persistent, relapsing and reinfections will be emphasized. A systematic method of evaluation that allows predisposing factors (anatomic, metabolic or functional) to initiate or perpetuate urinary infection will be developed.
This session will discuss some of the more common household products to which pets may be exposed. Relative toxicity and management of toxicosis to items such as birth control pills, chocolate, detergents, ethylene glycol and pennies will be covered.
Primary sphincter mechanism incompetence (PSMI) is the most common and important cause of urinary incontinence in female dogs. Medical options for the treatment of PSMI will be compared between estrogens (diethylstillbesterol, conjugated estrogens, estriol), alpha adrenergics (phenylpropanolamine, ephedrine) and anticholinergics. Injectioning bulking compounds through the cystoscope will be detailed as an option for dogs that fail medical treatment. The use of the urethral hydraulic occlude as a new treatment option will be presented as will updates on the definitive diagnosis, staging and management of ectopic ureters.
This session will cover common houseplants and some outdoor hazards as well. The clinical signs and treatment of these plants will be discussed.
Dustin Devine, DVM, MS, DACVS (1.2 CE)
Techniques to stabilize and triage fractures and luxations in the field will be discussed, including initial wound care, external coaptation and transport of the injured patient.
Paul Fricke, Ph.D. (1.2 CE)
This session will discuss the latest research on synchronization and resynchronization strategies for lactating dairy cows and dairy heifers, in addition the session will discuss research assessing new reproductive technologies including accelerometer systems for detection of estrus activity and new methods for non-pregnancy diagnosis.
Techniques to provide management of infection control and therapy of wounds affecting cutaneous and deeper structures. Techniques will include regional limb perfusion.
Lameness conditions of the horse that have characteristic gaits will be presented and therapies discussed.
Conditions that are amendable to field surgery will be presented. Useful protocols for field anesthesia will be discussed as well.
Peripheral nerve blocks for lameness diagnostic, ophthalmic and dental procedures will be presented.
Sample collection for accurate diagnosis of conditions affecting the respiratory, abdominal, bone marrow, liver, etc. will be presented.
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